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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.

WATER-PAM Fluorometer

The WATER-PAM is the PAM fluorometer of choice when very low chlorophyll contents of samples require outstandingly sensitive fluorescence detection. The three different types of the WATER-PAM are designed to analyse suspension samples, surfaces, or a continuous water flow, respectively.

The parameters measured are chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity. All WATER-PAM chlorophyll fluorometers can be operated in stand-alone mode which facilitates measurements in the field.


About the WATER-PAM-II Version for Phytoplankton

The WATER-PAM-II can be used for laboratory cultures as well as natural water samples when very low chlorophyll contents of samples require ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection.

The WATER-PAM-II is a portable cuvette system for analysing the photosynthetic activity of a wide variety of phytoplankton samples. The light weight instrument offers a wide range of applications thanks to its large sensitivity spectrum, the ability to easily switch between red and blue light mode (measuring light and actinic light) and a variety of accessories such as a flow-through cuvette.

With the WATER-PAM-II a detailed analysis can be made of the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton samples including quenching parameters. It can be used as a stand-alone instrument or connected to an external computer on which WinControl-3 software is run. In addition to simple single measurements, analysis protocols such as induction curves and light curves can be performed with easy-to-use program routines.

A new feature of WATER-PAM-II instruments is the differential analysis of algal content, providing a tool to determine the composition of algae populations with respect to three algae groups (green algae, cyanobacteria and brown algae), based on differences in the F-spectrum of these algal groups.

Design features of this very compact instrument:

  • Integrated sunlight readable touchscreen enabling easy operation and providing numerical and graphical display of the measurements
  • Practical power supply option: common, easily replaceable, off-the-shelf (rechargable) batteries (type AA)
  • Energy-efficient LED light sources and storage capacity of 27 000 data sets permit long-term experiments in the field
  • Highly sensitive photomultiplier detector with automatic overexposure protection for safe use even in sunny environments

Extensive set of accessories included: several cuvettes, a cuvette stand and the US-SQS/L Light Sensor for precise light calibration.

Accessories for WATER-PAM-II:

  • WATER-II/S Stirrer (device controlled) to prevent settling of sample
  • PHYTO-II/FT Flow-Through Cuvette with WATER-II/FT/I Pump Control 0-10 V for automated sampling
  • BCS-9590 Barcode Scanner for an easy-to-use administration of measurements of labelled samples
  • WATER-II/H Tripod Holder for WATER-PAM-II

The WATER-PAM chlorophyll fluorometers achieve outstanding sensitivity by fluorescence detection with a particularly red-sensitive photomultiplier combined with special preamplifier electronics. In this way, detection limits for suspensions down to 0.1 µg chlorophyll/litre are achieved.

Damage to the susceptible photomultiplier tube by external radiation is averted by an automatic switch-off circuit. Consequently, the photomultiplier tube is shielded from external light during measurements.


A further feature of WATER-PAM chlorophyll fluorometers is that they can be operated independently from line connection and computer by the battery-powered PAM-CONTROL unit.

The same PAM-CONTROL unit functions as a physical interface between measuring unit and computer for operation of the WATER-PAM by the WinControl software.

Universal Control Unit PAM-CONTROL

For control of Photomultiplier-detector PM-MF and LED

General Features

Data memory: 128 kB CMOS RAM providing memory for 4000 data sets
Microcontroller: CMOS 80C52
Display: 2 x 24 character alphanumerical LCD with backlight
User interface: 2 x 4 touch-sensitive keys to operate the internal mode menu
Measured parameters: Fo, Fm, Fm’, F, Fv/Fm (max. Yield), ΔF/Fm’ (Yield), qP, qN, NPQ, PAR (using special micro quantum sensor), ETR (i.e. PAR x ΔF/Fm’)

General Design

Power supply: Internal rechargeable battery 12 V/2 Ah, providing power for at least 10 000 Yield measurements, automatic power/off, battery charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)
Dimensions: 17.6 cm x 11.5 cm x 9.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 2 kg (incl. battery)
Operating temperature: -5 to +45°C


Actinic light: Drives up to three actinic LEDs
Aux input: Receives signals from temperature and light sensors
Aux output: Sends control signals for external LED drivers
Charge: Socket for battery charger
Far red light: Up to three far red LEDs can be driven
Measuring light: Capacity to drive up to three LEDs both as measuring and actinic light sources, 12 LED intensity and 12 pulse frequency settings are available, automatic change of measuring light frequency.
Output: Provides analogue signal to chart recorder
Photomultiplier: Full control of photomultiplier PM-MF
RS232: Data transfer to computer using WinControl V. 2 software

Computer-controlled Operation

Software: WinControl-2 (Windows 3.1x/9x/Me/NT4/2000/XP). WinControl-3 (Windows XP/Vista, Windows 7 and 8).

Emitter-Detector Unit WATER-ED (red)

Design: Metal housing with LED array, photomultiplier, pulse signal preamplifier and cables connecting to photomultiplier (PM) and AUX output sockets of PAM-CONTROL unit. Featuring measuring chamber with 15 mm diameter quartz cuvette
LED Array: Pulse modulated measuring light, three LEDs peaking at 650 nm. Actinic light/saturation pulses, 12 LEDs peaking at 660 nm. Far-red light, three LEDs peaking at 740 nm. Alternative to far-red light, blue LEDs (460 nm) can be build in for preferential PS I excitation in cyanobacteria. Actinic intensity up to 2000 µmol quanta m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Saturation pulse intensity up to 4000 µmol quanta m-2 s-1
Signal detection: Photomultiplier detector based on Photosensor Module H-6779-01 (Hamamatsu) with high red sensitivity; featuring pulse preamplifier and automatic overload switch-off; fluorescence detection at wavelengths > 710 nm
Dimensions: 11 cm x 9 cm x 8 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 600 g (incl. cable 0.6 m long)

Emitter-Detector Unit WATER-ED/B (blue)

Identical to Emitter-Detector Unit WATER-ED except:

LED Array: Pulse modulated measuring light, three LEDs peaking at 460 nm. Actinic light/saturation pulses, 10 LEDs peaking at 460 nm. Far-red light, three LEDs peaking at 740 nm


Stirring Device WATER-S

Design: Miniature stirring motor in plastic housing with adapter for mounting on top of the cuvette in the emitter-detector unit. Equipped with 10 disposable flattened Perspex rods. Self-contained unit powered by a long-life 3 V Lithium Battery. With potentiometer for adjustment of stirring rate
Dimensions: 8 cm x 5 cm x 3 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 95 g (including battery)

Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor US-SQS/WB

Application: Suspension cuvette
Connects to: WATER-PAM, PAM-100 (PDA-100), XE-PAM (PDA-100), DUAL-PAM-100, ULM-500 (AUX), PAM-2500 and MINI-PAM (instead of Leaf Clip Holder 2030-B or 2060 M)
Connector: Same as Leaf Clip Holder 2030-B. Includes hood for suspension cuvette, amplifier for aux input of PAM Control
Signal output: 0 to 2.5 V DC / 0 to 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 or 0 to 2.5 V DC / 0 to 20.000 μmol m-2 s-1 Power Provided by connected instrument
Cable length: 3 m + 0.5 m
Size: Sensor: Diameter 1 cm, length: 11 cm;
Hood: Diameter 3.4 cm height: 3.2 cm;
Amplifier: 5 x 5 x 5 cm (W x L x H)
Weight: 175 g