The TOXY-PAM chlorophyll fluorometer is designed to detect traces of substances which act inhibitory on photosynthesis. For instance, the photosystem II inhibitor Diuron can be proved at concentrations down to
0.02 µg L-1 (Schreiber et al. (2002) Photosynth Res 74: 317-330).
The TOXY-PAM detects phytotoxic compounds by comparing the simultaneously measured photosynthetic electron transport rates of a treated and a reference sample. The outstandingly high sensitivity of the TOXY-PAM is achieved by providing absolutely identical conditions in the two parallel measuring compartments.
TOXY-PAM fluorometer controlled by a Windows computer using the ToxyWin software.
The TOXY-PAM fluorometer is a compact device featuring two ports for round cuvettes. Eight membrane keys allow easy instrument control in the standalone mode. The instrument can by powered by its integrated battery. The TOXY-PAM can also be operated under computer control using the ToxyWin software which runs under Windows 98/ME/NT4/2000/XP.
The TOXY-PAM measures PAM fluorescence and performs saturation pulse analyses from which automatically effective photosynthesis yields. From the difference of yields in the two measuring compartments, the degree of inhibition is evaluated in percent and in Diuron equivalents (µ g Diuron L-1). These inhibition parameters are stored and statistically evaluated.
TOXY-PAM fluorometer in stand-alone mode.
The TOXY-PAM is widely used for detection of phytotoxic substances in water samples (e.g. drinking water and water used in food industry, as well as surface waters of lakes, rivers and oceans). For this purpose, standardized suspensions of thylakoids or unicellular algae may serve as photosynthetically active biotest material to detect a large number of toxic substances which affect the enzymatic steps of photosynthesis as well as parts of the associated cell metabolism.
In addition, the TOXY-PAM can serve as a valuable tool in applied photosynthesis research when the effects of various stress treatments needs to be investigated.
Measuring and saturation light source: Ten light emitting diodes per channel, emission maximum at 655 nm (TOXY-PAM/R) or 470 nm (TOXY-PAM); 12 intensity settings with standard intensity of 2.5 µmol m-2s-1 PAR; ML-High function causing increase of frequency and of integrated intensity by factor of 20
Signal detection: PIN-photodiodes protected by long-pass filters (lambda > 700 nm in case of the TOXY-PAM/R and lambda > 640 nm in case of the TOXY-PAM); selective window amplifiers
Design: Robust cast aluminium housing. Operator panel with LCD-display with backlight (2 x 16 characters), keypad, and two ports of identical measuring chambers with identical emitter-detector units. 12 V/2 Ah rechargeable sealed-lead acid battery providing power for ca. 24 hours of continuous off-line operation, automatic power/off. Sockets for RS 232 communication and battery charger
Measured and calculated parameters: Steady-state fluorescence yields, F1 and F2; maximal fluorescence yields, Fm1 and Fm2; effective quantum yields, Y1 and Y2; Inhibition % and Diuron-equivalents (µ g Diuron l-1)
Peak detection: Optional function to determine Fm as peak value of moving average over 150 msec
Pre-Pulse: Optional function to apply short saturating flash 1.4 sec before assessment of steady-state fluorescence yields F1 and F2
Power supply: Internal rechargeable battery 12 V/2 Ah, providing power for ca. 24 hours of continuous off-line operation; automatic power/off when not used for 4 min; Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L
PC-terminal operation: Via RS 232 interface using dedicated ToxyWin-software
Data transfer: Data transfer on PC via RS 232 using ToxyWin-software
Operating temperature: -5 to +45 °C
Dimensions: 17.5 cm x 12.5 cm x 13 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 1.8 kg
Design: 13 mm outer diameter, 46 mm height, and 1 mm wall thickness
Design: Pack of 500 pieces each 120 mm long, with 30 mm flattened end part (3 mm x 1 mm)
Input: 90 to 264 V AC, 47 to 63 Hz
Output: 19 V DC, 3.7 A
Operating temperature: 0 to 40 °C
Dimensions: 15 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 300 g
Variable specifications, depending on market offers
Design: Plastic case with custom foam packing
Dimensions: 42.5 cm x 34 cm x 13.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 1.9 kg
Software: ToxyWin for Windows 98/Me/NT4/2000/XP#
Measured and calculated parameters: Steady-state fluorescence yields, F1 and F2; maximal fluorescence yields, Fm1 and Fm2; effective quantum yields, Y1 and Y2; Inhibition % and Diuron-equivalents (µg Diuron l-1)
Statistical evaluation: Functions for averaging defined sets of measured data. Calculation of standard deviation of averaged data. Calculation of the mean deviation between the data of two consecutive measurements for a defined set of data