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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.

PHYTO-PAM-II Phytoplankton Analyzer

PHYTO-PAM is a Five-Excitation wavelength chlorophyll fluorometer that facilitates measurements of mixed algae populations for distinct analysis of their photosynthetic performance and light-adaptation states. Green algae, diatoms, cyanobacteria and with PHYTO-PAM-II also phycoerythrin containing organisms like cryptophytes can be analysed down to a concentration of 0.1 µg Chl/l as it can be found in natural surface waters or coastal seawater. The photosynthetic performance assesses the quantum yields, relative electron transport rates and light response curves.

Miniature photomultiplier detectors enable extremely sensitive fluorescence detection for standard PAM measurements like saturation pulse analysis, light curves and induction curves. The PHYTO-PAM-II COMPACT version additionally features a fast kinetics mode for evaluation of OI1 and the absorption cross section of PSII (σPSII).

The PHYTO-PAM not only allows to determine the content of active chlorophyll in natural surface waters down to 0.1 µ g Chl/l, but also to differentiate between differently pigmented groups of algae (green algae, diatoms and cyanobacteria). Furthermore, the photosynthetic performance and light-adaptational state of the various types of phytoplankton can be assessed.

Fluorescence is excited alternately at high repetition rates by µsec pulses of 470, 520, 645 and 665 nm light originating from light emitting diodes (LED). A miniature photomultiplier detector serves for extremely sensitive fluorescence detection. It is protected against light damage by automatic switch-off circuitry.

Three alternative PHYTO-PAM system versions with different emitter detector units are available for different types of samples. They are all based on the same central Power-and-Control-Unit PHYTO-C:

  MODULAR version with separate LED-array cones for measuring light and actinic illumination, featuring a 10 x 10 mm cuvette for homogeneous illumination.

  COMPACT version as more portable unit for field applications, with all optoelectronical components being mounted in one miniature housing, featuring 15 mm Ø round cuvette.

  FIBER version is using a focusing fibre optic for periphyton and microphytobenthos measurements.

A Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor US-SQS and a cosine corrected Mini Quantum Sensor US-MQS is available to measure photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the two types of cuvettes or at the fibre optics exit to calibrate the light list of the PHYTO-PAM.

Additionally two types of miniature stirrers are available for the PHYTO-ED and PHYTO-US unit.

The MODULAR version of the PHYTO-PAM is best suited for laboratory applications, because of its flexibility. The advantage of the Optical Unit ED-101US/MP that connects all the used components, is its open design which allows to change filters and to apply differently coloured actinic LED-array cones. Additionally the illumination of the 10 x 10 mm cuvette is more homogeneous than in the more COMPACT version PHYTO-ED.

The Portable Emitter-Detector Unit PHYTO-ED can be connected to the standard Power-and-Control-Unit PHYTO-C of the PHYTO-PAM system. This highly portable emitter-detector unit substitutes for the standard optical unit with separate measuring and actinic LED array cones and photomultiplier detector mounted on a heavy stand.


General design: Metal housing for PHYTO-PAM-II Power-and-Control-Unit including all opto-electronic components as well as the measuring chamber for 15 mm Ø quartz cuvette WATER-K.
Chip-on-board multi-wavelength measuring light LED emitter: 440, 480, 540, 590, and 625 nm for pulse-modulated measuring light; 2 intensity settings; 8 settings of pulse frequency and 3 settings of auto MF-high pulse frequency
Chip-on-board multi-wavelength actinic LED array: 440, 480, 540, 590, 625 and 420-640 nm (white) for continuous actinic illumination, up to 1500 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR; fast kinetic flashes up to 7000 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR; saturation pulse up to 5000 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR
Far-Red LED: peak wavelength 725 nm
Signal detection: Photomultiplier detector based on Photosensor Module H-10720 (Hamamatsu)
Standard detector filter: long-pass filter > 650 nm
Sockets: charge socket for Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L, input socket for US-SQS/WB Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor, USB socket
Communication: USB 1.1, USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 compatible
User interface: Windows computer with PhytoWin-3 software
Power supply: Rechargeable sealed lead-acid battery 12 V/2 Ah; Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)
Dimensions: 29 cm x 30 cm x 20.5 cm (l x w x h), aluminium housing with carrying handle and cuvette cover
Power consumption: Basic operation 1.3 W, ML +AL at maximum output 3.7 W. Saturation Pulse at maximum intensity, 6.2 W
Weight: 4.42 kg (including battery)
Operating temperature: -5 to +40°C

Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L

Input: 90 to 264 V AC, 47 to 63 Hz
Output: 19 V DC, 3.7 A
Operating temperature: 0 to 40°C
Dimensions: 15 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm (l x w x h)
Weight: 300 g

Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor US-SQS/WB

Design: 3.7 mm diffusing Plexiglas sphere coupled to integrated PAR-sensor via 2 mm fibre, compact amplifier unit and special holder for mounting on sample cuvette;
Connects to: PHYTO PAM II LIGHT SENSOR connector
Cable length: 3 m + 0.5 m
Size: Sensor: diameter 1 cm, length: 11 cm; 15.2 mm spacer ring for light sensor positioning; Hood: 3.4 cm diameter, 3.2 cm height; Amplifier: 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm (w x l x h)
Weight: 175 g

Transport Box PHYTO-T

Design: Aluminium box with custom foam packing for PHYTO-PAM-II and accessories
Dimensions: 60 cm x 40 cm x 34 cm (l x w x h)
Weight: 5 kg


Stirring Device WATER-S

Design: Miniature stirring motor in plastic housing with adapter to mount on top of the PHYTO-PAM II/ED cuvette; equipped with disposable Perspex stirring paddle; self-contained unit featuring long-life 3 V Lithium Battery; potentiometer for adjustment of stirring rate
Dimensions: 80 mm x 50 mm x 30 mm (L x W x H)
Weight: 95 g (incl. battery)