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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.


The MULTI-COLOR-PAM fluorometer provides an unprecedented colour range of measuring and actinic light including white and far-red light sources. The various colours enable researchers to tailor conditions of fluorescence measurements exactly to the spectral properties of their sample.

Therefore, the MULTI-COLOR-PAM fluorometer opens the way to study many wavelength-dependent aspects of photosynthesis that so-far have not been commonly accessible.

The MULTI-COLOR-PAM fluorometer is optimised for highly sensitive assessment of photosynthesis in dilute suspensions of algae, cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. In addition, the measuring system can be configured to study leaf photosynthesis and epidermal UV-A screening.

The MULTI-COLOR-PAM is unique in combining the information obtained from fast kinetic measurements in the sub-ms time range with steady-state information obtained e.g. with the help of light response curves. In particular, reliable assessment of the wavelength-dependent absorption cross-section of PS II, Sigma (II), opens the way for profound fluorescence-based analysis of photosynthetic electron transport and its regulation in variously pigmented organisms.


(Multiple Excitation Wavelength Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analyzer)

The MULTI-COLOR-PAM provides 6 colours of pulse-modulated measuring light (400, 440, 480, 540, 590 and 625 nm) and 5 colours of actinic light (440, 480, 540, 590, 625). In addition, white (420-640 nm) and far-red light (730 nm) light sources are built in.

By employing state-of-the-art LED light sources in combination with elaborated chip-on-board technology, strong actinic photon fluxes are achieved while keeping the emitter unit highly compact. Each measuring light colour can be freely combined with one of the available actinic light sources.

The MULTI-COLOR-PAM detects fluorescence by a highly sensitive photodiode attached to either an optical unit for suspensions or for leaves. A spherical or flat cosine-corrected sensor feeds its signal directly to the MULTI-COLOR-PAM control unit so that accurate PAR measurements can be obtained in suspension or at leaf surfaces. A special routine is provided to measure PAR-lists for all colours automatically.

The MULTI-COLOR-PAM detects effective PS II quantum yield, Y(II), with outstanding accuracy and, thus, enables highly reliable calculations of relative electron transport rates (rel. ETRmax) even with extremely stressed samples.

Power-and-Control-Unit MCP-C

General design: Microcontroller: 2 x AVR-RISC (8 MHz) + 4 MB SRAM; 256000 data points with 12 bit resolution can be stored
Sockets: 2 sockets for measuring light and actinic light of MCP-E Multi-Color Emitter Head, socket for signal detection by MCP-D Detector Head, charge socket or Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L, output socket for PHYTO-MS Miniature Magnetic Stirrer, BNC sockets for 5 V trigger-in and trigger out signals, input socket for US-SQS/WB Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor or US-MQS/WB Mini Quantum Sensor, input socket for auxiliary devices, connector for optional PS I lamp, USB socket
Communication: USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 compatible
User interface: Windows computer with PamWin-3 software
Power supply: Rechargeable sealed lead-acid battery 12 V/2 Ah; Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)
Dimensions: 31 cm x 16 cm x 33.5 cm (W x H x D), aluminium housing with carrying handle
Power consumption: Basic operation 1.6 W, 8 W with all internal light sources operated at maximum output. Saturation Pulse at maximum intensity, 30 W
Weight: 2.5 kg (including battery)
Operating temperature: -5 to +40°C

Multi-Color Emitter Head MCP-E

Chip-on-board multi-wavelength measuring light LED emitter: 400, 440, 480, 540, 590, and 625 nm for pulse-modulated measuring light; 20 intensity settings and 14 settings of pulse frequency
Chip-on-board multi-wavelength actinic LED array: 440, 480, 540, 590, 625 and 420-640 nm (white) for continuous actinic illumination, max. 4000 umol m-2 s-1 PAR; saturating single turnover flashes, max. 200000 µmol-2 s-1 PAR, adjustable between 5 and 50 µs; multiple turnover flashes, max. 12000 µmol-2 s-1 PAR, adjustable between 1 and 800 ms
Far-Red LED: peak wavelength 725nm
Dimensions: 10.5 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 500 g (incl. cables, 1 m long)

Detector Head MCP-D

Signal detection: PIN photodiode with special pulse preamplifier for measuring fluorescence changes with maximum time resolution of 10 µs
Filter box: For up to 14 mm filter thickness
Standard detector filter: long-pass filter > 650 nm (3 mm RG 665) plus short-pass filter SP 710
Dimensions: 6.9 cm x 9.8 cm x 6.4 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 355 g (incl. cables, 1 m long)

Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L

Input: 90 to 264 V AC, 47 to 63 Hz
Output: 19 V DC, 3.7 A
Operating temperature: 0 to 40°C
Dimensions: 15 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 300 g

Optical Unit for Suspensions ED-101US/MD

Design: Black-anodised aluminium body with central 10 x 10 mm standard glass cuvette; for attachment of Measuring Heads MCP-E and MCP-D, and Miniature Magnetic Stirrer PHYTO-MS; two additional ports for attachment of two additional devices
Weight: 750 g

Stand ST-101

Stand for mounting the Optical Units ED-101US/MD (suspensions) or MCP BK (leaves)

Transport Box PHYTO-T

Design: Aluminium box with custom foam packing for MULTI-COLOR-PAM and accessories
Dimensions: 60 cm x 40 cm x 34 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 5 kg

System Control and Data Acquisition

Software: PamWin-3 System Control and Data Acquisition Program (Windows XP/Vista, Windows 8) for operation of measuring system via PC, data acquisition and analysis

Saturation Pulse Analysis

Measured: Ft, Fo, Fm, F, Fo’ (also calculated), Fm’. Fast polyphasic rise and decay kinetics (time resolution up to 10 µs). PAR using Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor US-SQS/WB or Mini Quantum Sensor US-MQS/WB.
Calculated: Fo’ (also measured), Fv/Fm and Y(II) (maximum and effective photochemical yield of PS II, respectively), qL, qP, qN, NPQ, Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and ETR (electron transport rate), C/Fo (constant fraction of Fo not constituting PS II chlorophyll fluorescence)
Fitting Routines Fitting routine for fast fluorescence rise from 0 to the I1 level to determine functional absorption cross-section of PS II and PS II-specific electron transport rates. Fitting of fluorescence decay after light-to-dark transition by up to three exponentials to estimate primary electron transfer rates. Fitting routine for determination of the cardinal points alpha, Ik and ETRmax of light curves.
Computer Requirements Processor: 0.8 GHz. RAM: 512 MB. Screen resolution: 1024 x 600 pixels. Interface, USB 2.0/3.0. Operating system: Microsoft Windows XP SP2/Vista/Windows 8