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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.


The chlorophyll fluorometer MONITORING-PAM is designed for unattended, long-term and multi-site monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in air or underwater. At each measuring site, compact and robust emitter-detector units measure modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and perform saturation pulse analysis.

Depending on system configuration, up to seven sites per MONITORING-PAM system can be measured simultaneously. At each site, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at sample level is recorded so that relative electron transport rates can be derived from PAR data and photochemical yields of photosystem II.

The multi-site chlorophyll fluorometer MONITORING-PAM operates several emitter-detector heads in parallel. A clip attached to each head positions the sample at defined distance and angle. Two types of emitter/detector heads are available which are specially designed for long-term operation in the field or under water.

Each emitter-detector head is equipped with a blue power LED. Based on exact timing of function, this LED provides modulated fluorescence excitation light, actinic light and saturation flashes. A lens focuses the LED radiation on the sample, and collects fluorescence. Maximum saturation pulse intensity at sample level exceeds 8500 µmol m-2 s-1.

Measuring end of emitter-detector unit MONI-HEAD/485. Light paths of fluorescence excitation and detection as well as for ambient light measurements are indicated.

The emitter-detector heads detect modulated fluorescence at wavelengths > 650 nm. At the same time, the intensity of external photosynthetically active radiation at sample level is recorded by measuring the light reflected by a diffuse Teflon reflector mounted in-plane with the sample.

For monitoring of land plants, terrestrial versions of the MONITORING-PAM are available, for studies of submarine plants, aquatic versions are available. The online configurations of both systems requires permanent connection to the mains and to a Windows computer via the interface MONI-IB4/LAN (Terrestrial version) or MONI-IB4/LANS (Aquatic version). Computer connection by Ethernet is possible. The stand-alone configurations can be operated by battery-powered data acquisition units and are independent of line power.


Measuring Head MONI-HEAD/485

General Design:

Housing: Water-tight aluminium cylinder with one end featuring a ball lens for focusing modulated measuring light, actinic light and saturating light pulses on the sample, and collecting fluorescence. Opposite end of tube: M12 5-pole socket for RS485/power line
Sample clip: Consisting of 2 aluminium frames (3.5 x 2.5 cm), held together by a special O-ring, and mounted at a distance of 2.5 cm from the MONIHEAD/485 optical window. Angle between optical axis of the MONI-HEAD/485 and sample clip plane: 120°
Cables: Data/power cable, 10 m standard length (between MONI-HEAD/485 and MONI-IB4/LAN, MONI-HEAD/485 and MONI-DA, or MONI-DA and MONI-IB1)
Dimensions: Cylinder with diameter of 3 cm and length of 28 cm
Power consumption: Peak loads during saturating pulses 7 W. During measuring mode 0.2 W
Operating temperature: -15 to +40°C
Weight: 250 g

Light Emission

Modulated fluorescence excitation: Blue power LED (peak wavelength 466 nm, full width at half maximum 22 nm). Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of measuring light at level of the sample clip range from 0.15 to 1.5 µmol m-2 s-1 at low modulation frequencies (5 to 25 Hz), and from 1.5 to 22.5 µmol m-2 s-1 at high modulation frequencies (100 to 500 Hz)
Actinic light: Same power LED as for modulated light. At level of sample clip, maximum photosynthetically active radiation of actinic light and saturating flashes of 1500 and more than 8500 µmol m-2 s-1


Fluorescence: PIN-photodiode protected by longpass filter (50% transmittance at 645 nm). Selective window amplifier to measure pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR): Integrated quantum sensor (photodiode protected by near infrared filters) measuring the radiation reflected by a 1.3 x 0.7 cm area of an optically diffuse Teflon sheet, 1 mm thick, mounted at the edge of the leaf clip
Temperature: Integrated-circuit temperature sensor on circuit board

PC Interface Box MONI-IB4/LAN

Housing: Aluminium case with RS-232, USB-B, Ethernet, power supply sockets, and four M12 5-pole sockets for RS-485 communication
Interfacing: The interface box connects a computer with up to four MONI-HEAD/485 (or one MONI-DA). RS-485 serial data communication is used between interface box and MONI-HEAD/485 or MONI-DA. RS232, USB or Ethernet communication is used between interface box and computer
Recommended maximum cable lengths: To computer via USB and RS-232: 2 m. To computer via Ethernet, 100 m. To MONI-HEAD/485 via RS-485: 10 m. To MONI-DA via RS-485, 100 m
Dimensions: 12 x 9.3 x 3 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 400 g
Operating temperature: 0 to +40°C
Power supply: Input: 100 to 240 V AC, 50 to 60 Hz. Output: 19 V DC, 3.7 A. Dimensions: 13.2 x 5.8 x 3 cm (L x W x H). Weight: 310 g


WinControl-3 for PAM fluorometers. Measured and calculated parameters: Fo, Fm, Fm’, F, Fo’ (calculated), Fv/Fm (max. Yield), DeltaF/Fm’ (Yield), qP, qN, qL, NPQ, Y(NPQ), Y(NO), ETR (i.e. PAR x DeltaF/Fm’), PAR and °C. Two different fitting routines for ETR versus light intensity curves
Minimum System Requirements: Processor: 1 GHz. RAM: 1 GB. Hard disc space: 1GB. Screen resolution: 800 x 600 pixels. Interface: USB 1.1/2.0/3.0, RS-232, or Ethernet. Operating system: Microsoft Windows XP/Vista, Windows 8.

Transport Box

Design: Aluminium box with custom foam packing for MONITORING-PAM
Dimensions: 60 cm x 40 cm x 25 cm (L x W x H); 42 litre
Weight: 4.7 kg