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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.


For probing of microscopic objects down to the single chloroplast.
The MICROSCOPY-PAM is an extremely sensitive non-imaging chlorophyll fluorometer specialised to measure smallest spots in microscopic specimen like tissue preparations or suspensions.

Essentially, the fluorometer consists of a modified epi-fluorescence microscope equipped with a modulated LED light source and a photomultiplier for detection of modulated chlorophyll fluorescence.

MICROSCOPY-PAM: Modified Zeiss microscope and PAM-CONTROL interface

The MICROSCOPY-PAM system uses a Zeiss AxioScope.A1 epifluorescence microscope. By default, the microscope is equipped with a wide-aperture Zeiss Fluar objective with 20-fold magnification. Standard light source for fluorescence excitation is the blue Zeiss LED-Modul 470 nm.

A special pulse modulation regime permits the use if the same LED module as source for measuring and actinic light as well as for saturation pulses. The use of other Zeiss LED modules emitting at different wavelengths in the UV-A and visible spectral range will be considered on customer request.

Zeiss AxioScope.A1

Chlorophyll fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier mounted on a special detector-ocular of the microscope. The ocular is equipped with an iris diaphragm with which the field of view can be narrowed down. A special dichroic beamsplitter filterset serves for effective separation of broadband fluorescence emission (λ>650 nm).

Fluorescence excitation and detection are controlled by the PAM-CONTROL unit which allows stand-alone operation of the MICROSCOPY-PAM but can also function as a physical interface for computer-controlled operation of the system.

The PAM-CONTROL unit is delivered with WinControl V.2-Software for operation by Windows computers, an RS 232 cable, a USB-RS 232 adapter (in case that an RS-232 port is not available), a charger MINI-PAM/L, a cable to connect a chart recorder and a transport box.

Universal Control Unit PAM-CONTROL

For control of Photomultiplier-detector PM-MF and LED

General Features

Data memory: 128 kB CMOS RAM providing memory for 4000 data sets
Microcontroller: CMOS 80C52
Display: 2 x 24 character alphanumerical LCD with backlight
User interface: 2 x 4 touch-sensitive keys to operate the internal mode menu
Measured parameters: Fo, Fm, Fm’, F, Fv/Fm (max. Yield), ΔF/Fm’ (Yield), qP, qN, NPQ, PAR (using special micro quantum sensor), ETR (i.e. PAR x ΔF/Fm’)

General Design

Power supply: Internal rechargeable battery 12 V/2 Ah, providing power for at least 10 000 Yield measurements, automatic power/off, battery charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)
Dimensions: 17.6 cm x 11.5 cm x 9.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 2 kg (incl. battery)
Operating temperature: -5 to +45°C


Actinic light: Drives up to three actinic LEDs
AUX input: Receives signals from temperature and light sensors
Aux output: Sends control signals for external LED drivers
Charge: Socket for battery charger
Far red light: Up to three far red LEDs can be driven
Measuring light: Capacity to drive up to three LEDs both as measuring and actinic light sources, 12 LED intensity and 12 pulse frequency settings are available, automatic change of measuring light frequency.
Output: Provides analogue signal to chart recorder
Photomultiplier: Full control of photomultiplier PM-MF
RS232: Data transfer to computer using WinControl V. 2 software

Computer-controlled Operation

Software: WinControl-2 (Windows 3.1x/9x/Me/NT4/2000/XP). WinControl-3 (Windows XP/Vista, Windows 8).

Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L

Input: 100 to 240 V AC, 47 to 63 Hz
Output: 19 V DC, 3.7 A
Operating temperature: 0 to 40°C
Dimensions: 15 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 300 g

Analogue output cable for a chart recorder PAM-2000/K1

Length: 1.5 m
Weight: 70 g
USB-RS 232 adapter and RS 232 cable PAM-2000/K3: Variable specifications, depending on market offers

Transport Box CONTROL-T

Design: Aluminium box with custom foam packing for PAM-CONTROL and accessories
Dimensions: 60 cm x 40 cm x 25 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 5 kg

Photomultiplier PM-MF

Design: Based on photosensor module H-6779-01 (Hamamatsu) with pulse preamplifier and automatic overload switch-off, aluminium housing with mounting rod to be fixed on Stand ST-101
Signal detection: Miniature photomultiplier with high red sensitivity (type H6779-01, Hamamatsu)
Dimensions: 110 mm x 65 mm x 78 mm (H x W x D)
Weight: 520 g (incl. 1.4 m cable)

Epifluorescence Microscope Zeiss AxioScope.A1

Design: Based on Zeiss AxioScope.A1; Zeiss LED module 470 nm, including short-pass interference filter (λ < 500 nm). Dichroic beam splitter filterset; modified binocular phototube 100%, with adapter-tube for mounting Photomultiplier-Detector PM-MF, with iris diaphragm and detector-ocular
Objective: Fluar 20x/0.75
Oculars: PI 10×23 (2 pieces)
Condensor: NA 0.9
Lamp: 6 V/30 W
Mains supply: Auto transformer. Input 100-240V, 50-60 Hz, 700 mA. Output 12 V DC, 2.5 A
Dimensions: 50 cm x 26 cm x 50 cm (H x W x D)
Weight: approx. 10 kg

Adapter Set MC-A

Design: For Photomultiplier-Detector PM‑MF, consisting of long-pass filter (λ > 640 nm) and adapter for mounting on detector-ocular of the microscope


Micro Quantum Sensor MC-MQS

Design: To be mounted underneath objective (instead of object carrier); featuring 0.2 mm pin hole, fluorescing diffuser, blue-enhanced photodiode and separate preamplifier
Dimensions: Sensor, 76 mm x 26 mm x 4 mm (L x W x H); preamplifier, Ø 25 mm, length 77 mm
Weight: 110 g (incl. 85 cm cable and preamplifier)