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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.


The MICROFIBER-PAM employs a very thin optical fibre for fluorescence excitation and detection. This narrow fibre permits probing of small spots of heterogeneous photosynthetic surfaces like soil crusts. Placing the microfiber at different penetration depths permits measurements of photosynthetic gradients within microbial mats and leaves.


Components of the MICROFIBER-PAM: Fibre optic coupler (orange cables with black elongated central part), four different-coloured alternative LED light sources (upper left corner), photomultiplier (grey box mounted to stand bar) and PAM-CONTROL unit.

(MICROFIBER-PAM Probing Fluorometer)

The central part of the MICROFIBER-PAM is a fibre optic coupler consisting of a beam splitter to which two pairs of fibres are connected. This four port coupler distributes light incoming from one fibre pair to the other pair, where each fibre pair can function as input.

Typically, the fibre optic coupler conducts emission from an LED to the sample, and guides fluorescence from the sample back to a highly sensitive photomultiplier which is shielded against LED light by glass filters.

Both light emission of the LED and fluorescence measurement by the photomultiplier are coordinated by the PAM-CONTROL unit.

The PAM-CONTROL unit allows stand-alone operation of the MICROFIBER-PAM but functions also as a physical interface for computer-controlled operation of the MICROFIBER-PAM.

Fibre optic coupler consisting of a central beam splitter (black elongated central part) and four multi-mode optical fibres (orange cable) with ST (straight tip) connectors. Grey box: Photomultiplier.


Normally, the MICROFIBER-PAM uses blue LED light for fluorescence excitation but alternative LEDs emitting in the green and red spectral range are available.

Peak emission of the blue LED is 470 nm. The LED emits pulses of several µs duration to elicit the pulse-modulated fluorescence measured by the MICROFIBER-PAM, but also longer-lasting pulses which produce integrated light intensities which can saturate photosynthesis.

Universal Control Unit PAM-CONTROL

For control of Photomultiplier-detector PM-MF and LED

General Features

Data memory: 128 kB CMOS RAM providing memory for 4000 data sets
Microcontroller: CMOS 80C52
Display: 2 x 24 character alphanumerical LCD with backlight
User interface: 2 x 4 touch-sensitive keys to operate the internal mode menu
Measured parameters: Fo, Fm, Fm’, F, Fv/Fm (max. Yield), ΔF/Fm’ (Yield), qP, qN, NPQ, PAR (using special micro quantum sensor), ETR (i.e. PAR x ΔF/Fm’)

General Design

Power supply: Internal rechargeable battery 12 V/2 Ah, providing power for at least 10 000 Yield measurements, automatic power/off, battery charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)
Dimensions: 17.6 cm x 11.5 cm x 9.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 2 kg (incl. battery)
Operating temperature: -5 to +45°C


Actinic light: Drives up to three actinic LEDs
AUX input: Receives signals from temperature and light sensors
AUX output: Sends control signals for external LED drivers
Charge: Socket for battery charger
Far red light: Up to three far red LEDs can be driven
Measuring light: Capacity to drive up to three LEDs both as measuring and actinic light sources, 12 LED intensity and 12 pulse frequency settings are available, automatic change of measuring light frequency.
Output: Provides analogue signal to chart recorder
Photomultiplier: Full control of photomultiplier PM-MF
RS232: Data transfer to computer using WinControl V. 2 software

Computer-controlled Operation

Software: WinControl-2 (Windows 3.1x/9x/Me/NT4/2000/XP). WinControl-3 (Windows XP/Vista, Windows 8).

Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L

Input: 100 to 240 V AC, 47 to 63 Hz
Output: 19 V DC, 3.7 A
Operating temperature: 0 to 40°C
Dimensions: 15 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 300 g

Analogue output cable for a chart recorder PAM-2000/K1

Length: 1.5 m
Weight: 70 g
USB-RS 232 adapter and RS 232 cable PAM-2000/K3 Variable specifications, depending on market offers

Transport Box CONTROL-T

Design: Aluminium box with custom foam packing for PAM-CONTROL and accessories
Dimensions: 60 cm x 40 cm x 25 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 5 kg

Four Port Fibre Coupler MF-2-2-100

Design: 100/140 μm (core/cladding diameters) step index fibres, 2 input and 2 output arms with ca. 1.2 m lengths and ST-connectors at all ends, PVC-adapter to connect photomultiplier PM-MF
Weight: 85 g

Photomultiplier PM-MF

Design: Based on photosensor module H-6779-01 (Hamamatsu) with pulse preamplifier and automatic overload switch-off, aluminium housing with mounting rod to be fixed on Stand ST-101
Signal detection: Miniature photomultiplier with high red sensitivity (type H6779-01, Hamamatsu)
Dimensions: 110 mm x 65 mm x 78 mm (H x W x D)
Weight: 520 g (incl. 1.4 m cable)

Blue LED MF-L470

Emission peak: 470 nm
Short-pass filter: λ < 600 nm
Detector-filterset: λ > 640 nm
Dimensions: Ø 25 mm, length 112 mm
Weight: 115 g (incl. 1.4 m cable)

Adapter Set MF-A

Design: Consisting of filter holder, which mounts on Photomultiplier-Detector PM-MF, with adapter for fibre coupler MF-2-2-100, and a holder for mounting up to four LED light sources for the MICROFIBER-PAM, to be fixed on stand ST-101

Stand with Base Plate ST-101

Dimensions: Base plate, 39.5 cm x 30 cm.
Height: 76.5 cm, diameter 1.5 cm
Weight: 2.8 kg


Green LED MF-L520

Emission peak: 520 nm
Short-pass filter: λ < 600 nm
Detector-filterset: λ > 640 nm
Dimensions: Ø 25 mm, length 112 mm
Weight: 115 g (incl. 1.4 m cable)

Red (630 nm) LED MF-L630

Emission peak: 630 nm
Short-pass filter: λ < 680 nm
Detector-filterset: λ > 710 nm
Dimensions and weight: Green LED MF L470

Red (650 nm) LED MF-L650

Emission peak: 650 nm
Short-pass filter: λ < 680 nm
Detector-filterset: λ > 710 nm
Dimensions and weight: Green LED MF L470

Working Fibre MF-F

Design: Single 100/140 μm step index fibre with ST-connector on one end and free fibre on other end, including connector to link with Multimode Fibre coupler MF-2-2-100
Total length: 2 m