Lysimeters are powerful tools that can help us better understand the water balance. The Drain Gauge G2 and G3 are low-cost options for measuring deep drainage. The Smart Field Lysimeter is the complete package for measuring the water balance, allowing us to measuring deep drainage, evapotranspiration, and storage.
The Drain Gauge is constructed from inert materials, so chemicals won't react with the tube, the sensors, or the collection reservoir. Scientists and technicians have used the Mini Disk Infiltrometer to design irrigation systems, demonstrate hydraulic conductivity, evaluate erosion hazard, and gauge the impact of forest fires. It's ideal for irrigation system design, classroom instruction, erosion hazard evaluation, burn severity studies, and many other applications.
Drain Gauge 3 Features
Monitor Groundwater Leaching
Use the Drain Gauge G3 to determine the volume of water and chemicals draining from the vadose zone into groundwater.
The one-and-a-half meter tall Drain Gauge is buried directly in the ground to measure flow rate in unsaturated soils and collect soil water samples for chemical analysis. Water samples can be collected easily through a surface port to analyse for chemicals, fertilizers, and other contaminants.
Measure Deep Percolation Accurately
One of the challenges with lysimeter measurements is that water tends to flow around receptacles buried in the ground. The drain gauge uses an ingenious duct and wick design to apply a constant tension and keep the flow rate within the gauge equivalent to the flow rate in the surrounding soil.
Made from Non-reactive Materials
The Drain Gauge is constructed from inert materials, so chemicals won’t react with the tube, the sensors, or the collection reservoir. Scientists and technicians have used the Mini Disk Infiltrometer to design irrigation systems, demonstrate hydraulic conductivity, evaluate erosion hazard, and gauge the impact of forest fires. It’s ideal for irrigation system design, classroom instruction, erosion hazard evaluation, burn severity studies, and many other applications.
The Drain Gauge G3 has two available materials for the divergence control tube:
The Drain Gauge G3 can be used with or without the electronic sensor.
|DIMENSIONS:||Total Length: 147 cm
DCT length: 63.5 cm
DCT (Inside) Diameter: 25.4 cm
Reservoir Length: 81.3 cm
Reservoir (outside) Diameter: 11.5 cm
Access Tube Length: 180 cm standard, customisable
Access Tube, Outside Diameter: 6.0 cm (2” schedule 40 PVC)
Sample Evacuation Tube: 1.27 cm OD X 0.79 cm ID X 5 m length (Standard)
Mass: 20 kg with Stainless Steel DCT, 14 kg with PVC DCT
|RANGE:||Drainage: Water Depth: 0 to 3.5 m
Electrical Conductivity: 0 to 120 dS/m
Temperature: -40 to 50°C
|RESOLUTION:||Drainage: 0.2 mm
Water Depth: 1 mm
Electrical Conductivity: 0.001 dS/m
|ACCURACY:||+ 1.4 mm
Water Depth: + 0.2 % of full scale @ 20 °C
Electrical Conductivity: + 0.01 dS/m or + 10 % (whichever is greater)
Temperature: + 1°C
|SUCTION AT INTAKE:||110 cm (11 kPa)|
|SOLUTION COLLECTION CAPACITY:||3.1 L (6.1 cm of drainage) to bottom of wick. Additional 5.1 L (10 cm of drainage) of reserve capacity in wick chamber|
|SOLUTION COLLECTION SURFACE AREA:||507 cm2 (25.4 cm inside diameter)|
|WETTED MATERIAL:||DCT (standard): 304 Stainless Steel 11 gauge
DCT (optional inert material): PVC
Wick: dry fired fibreglass
Root Inhibitor: Treflan (BioBarrierTM), removable
Sample Evacuation Tube: Steel
Hydraulic Bridge Material: Diatomaceous Earth (DE)
All Other Parts: steel
|OPERATING TEMPERATURE:||0 to 50°C (Pressure transducer cannot be allowed to freeze while submersed.)|
|POWER REQUIREMENTS:||3.6 – 15 VDC, 0.03 mA quiescent, 0.5 mA during 300 ms measurement|
|MEASUREMENT TIME:||300 ms (milliseconds)|
|OUTPUT:||Serial TTL, 3.6 Volts Levels or SDI-12|
|CONNECTOR TYPES:||3.5 mm (stereo) plug, or stripped & tinned lead wires (3)|
|CABLE LENGTH:||5 m standard; custom lengths available upon request|
|DATA LOGGER COMPATIBILITY (NOT EXCLUSIVE):||Decagon Em50 Series, ProCheck, Campbell Scientific|
|SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY:||ECH2O Utility (rev 1.64+), DataTrac3 (rev 3.4+)|
|Drain Gauge References|
|Cobos, D.R., Salinity Effects on Drainage Measurement with the Gee Passive Capillary Lysimeter: 1-4.
|Corwin, D.L. 2000, ‘Evaluation of a Simple Lysimeter-design Modification to Minimize Sidewall Flow’, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, vol. 42, pp. 35-49.
|Gee, G.W., Ward, A.L., Caldwell, T.G. and Ritter, J.C. 2002, ‘A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter with Divergence Control’, Water Resources Research, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 10.1029/2001WR000816.
|Gee, G.W., Zhang, Z.F., Ward, A.L. and Keller, J.M. 2004, Passive-wick Water Fluxmeters: Theory and Practice, SuperSoil 2004: Third Australian New Zealand Soils Conference, University of Sydney, Australia. pp. 1-9.
|Guber, A.K., Pachepsky, Y.A., van Genuchten, M.Th., Rawls, W.J., Simunek, J., Jacques, D., Nicholson, T.J. and Cady, R.E. 2006, ‘Field-Scale Water Flow Simulations Using Ensembles of Pedotransfer Functions for Soil Water Retention’, Vadose Zone Journal, vol. 5, pp. 234-247.
|Louie, M.J., Shelby, P.M., Smesrud, J.S., Gatchell, L.O. and Selker, J.S. 2000, ‘Field Evaluation of Passive Capillary Samplers for Estimating Groundwater Recharge’, Water Resources Research, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 2407-2416.
|Mertens, J., Diels, J., Feyen, J. and Vanderborght, J. 2007, ‘Numerical Analysis of Passive Capillary Wick Samplers prior to Field Installation’, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 35-42.